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| Archive (includеs discontinued periodicals and other program documents) ]
Countering extortion racketeering: The Italian Experience
Extortion racketeering is a crime which spans all sections of society, poses threats to the well-being of local communities and impairs the growth and development of business. No country is immune to it, although it varies across time, space and economic context. Extortion can be perpetrated by single offenders, or it can be part of more complex criminal schemes. In this sense, the case of Italy is typical because Italian mafias systematically resort to extortion racketeering. more »
 
CSD Policy Brief No. 62: Energy Security Risks and the Case for Natural Gas Diversification
The Bulgarian energy sector remains of key importance for the development of the country’s economy. On the domestic side, Bulgaria’s energy sector faces severe governance deficiencies at multiple levels that lead to inefficiency and inconsistency of decision-making. Political meddling and conflicts of interest at the highest level of government compromise the strategic approach towards the sector, and often lead to poor management of the state-owned companies. more »
 
CSD Policy Brief No. 61: Drug users in prison: Norway’s experience and Bulgaria’s challenges
For all criminal offences related to drugs, even for possession of small quantities intended for personal use, the main sanction according to Bulgarian criminal law is imprisonment. Unlike in Norway, non-custodial penalties in Bulgaria such as probation have extremely limited scope of application for drug-related offences. At the same time, other alternatives to imprisonment are virtually non-existent. more »
 
State Capture Unplugged: Countering Administrative and Political Corruption in Bulgaria
The eleventh Corruption Assessment Report of the Center for the Study of Democracy is focused on the most potent form of corruption affecting Bulgaria: state capture. The report builds on years of CSD experience in the regular monitoring and assessing of the spread of administrative and political corruption. This is now complemented by an assessment of the mechanisms by which powerful lobbies capture government decision making to the benefit of shady business interests and the detriment of public good. more »
 
Illegal Entrepreneurship, Organized Crime and Social Control
This book covers organized crime groups, empirical studies of organized crime, criminal finances and money laundering, and crime prevention, gathering some of the most authoritative and well-known scholars in the field. The contributions to this book are new chapters written in honor of Professor Dick Hobbs, on the occasion of his retirement. more »
 
Extortion racketeering in the EU: vulnerability factors
Extortion racketeering has been long pointed out as the “defining activity of organised crime” (Konrad & Skaperdas, 1998). Although in recent years this crime has not been among the top listed organised crime threats in the strategic EU policy documents, it still remains ever present in European countries. more »
 
CSD Policy Brief No. 60: Media (In)dependence in Bulgaria: Risks and Trends
The role of Bulgarian media in public life came under scrutiny after several media outlets were used as an instrument for triggering political crises and for political engineering (2013 – 2014). more »
 
Integrated report on corruption and trafficking in women
Trafficking in human beings for sexual exploitation is a criminal business of transnational nature, ranking third after narcotics and arms trafficking in generating huge amounts of illegal profit. THB in all its manifestations is a dangerous crime that results in significant psychological, emotional, financial and often physical harm to victims, representing a serious violation of human rights. Despite the seriousness of the crime, law enforcement and criminal justice authorities across the world encounter various problems in investigating and punishing perpetrators. One important barrier is corruption, which – as with other criminal enterprises – is a significant facilitating mechanism. more »
 
Corruption and trafficking in women: The case of Bulgaria.
Corruption is an important facilitating mechanism for human trafficking. The link between the two crimes is especially relevant in countries like Bulgaria, which traditionally have had very levels of trafficking. Corruption is believed to be one of the key instruments adopted by organised criminal groups to avoid detection and obstruct counter-trafficking efforts. Although the use of corruption is often mentioned along with human trafficking, few studies have empirically explored the factors and mechanisms behind this nexus. more »
 
Concept for more effective civic participation in support of vulnerable groups
The concept for more effective civic participation in support of four vulnerable groups aims to identify legislative changes, improvement of practices and policy development by decision makers and the civil society to facilitate vulnerable communities in their interaction with state institutions and establish effective support mechanisms. more »
 

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