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Significant accounting policies

(a) Background

Founded in late 1989, the Center for Study of Democracy (CSD) is an interdisciplinary public policy institute dedicated to the values of democracy and market economy. CSD is a non-partisan, independent organization fostering the reform process in Bulgaria through impact on policy and civil society.

CSD objectives are:

  • to provide an enhanced institutional and policy capacity for a successful European Integration process;

    to promote institutional reform and the practical implementation of democratic values in legal and economic practice;

    to monitor public attitudes and serve as well as to monitor the institutional reform process in the country;

    to strengthen the institutional and management capacity of NGOs in Bulgaria, and reform the legal framework for their operation.

CSD encourages an open dialogue between scholars and policy makers and promotes public-private coalition building. As a full-service think tank, the Center achieves its objectives through policy research, process monitoring, drafting of legislation, dissemination and advocacy activities, building partnerships, local and international networks.

(b) Basis of preparation

These financial statements have been drawn up in conformity with International Accounting Standards.

The financial statements are presented in BGL, after taking into consideration the fact that during the last several years the fund has operated in a hyper-inflationary environment. The officially published inflation indices for 1996, 1997 and 1998 are 410.8%, 678.6% and 101% respectively. For the financial period ended 31 December 1997 no financial statements in accordance with IAS 29, “Financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies”, have been prepared. Since this is the first financial year that such audited financial statements are prepared, no comparative figures are presented.

(c) Foreign currencies

Monetary assets in foreign currencies have been revalued on a monthly basis as required by the Accountancy Act. As a result foreign exchange differences have arisen. Deferred revenue and other liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are carried at their historical values.

The exchange rate as of 31 December 1998 was BGL 1675.10 = USD 1. (Closing rate for 1997 - BGL 1765,5 = USD 1).

(d) Property, plant and equipment

Tangible and intangible fixed assets are inflated in accordance with International Accounting Standard 29, “Financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies”. The monthly inflation indices as officially published by the National Institute of Statistics are used. Since these are computed using the month of December of the previous year as a basis, chain indices from the month of purchase to the end of the year under review, have been used to measure the cumulative effect of inflation.

The tangible and the intangible fixed assets have then been depreciated using the straight line method over their estimated useful lives. The accumulated depreciation and the charge for the current year have been inflated using the above described method.

The following annual rates have been used:

Fixtures and fittings 25%

Machines and equipment 20%

Vehicles 20%

Software 20%

(e) Investments

Investments classified as long-term assets which are not considered to be material as compared to the overall balance sheet value of the CSD are carried at cost, less any amounts written off to recognise a decline in the value of the investment. As the subsidiaries perform economic activity the investments in them are not included in the parent’s separate financial statements because if included the statements will not give a true and fair presentation of the activity of the CSD. Due to the above mentioned reason the investments have not been consolidated.

(f) Revenue recognition and expense reporting

The revenue of the Center for the Study of Democracy consists of funds extended by international financing bodies for the completion of accepted projects. The amounts are carried in the balance sheet as deferred revenue at their historic values. Every project is commenced with a signing of a contract where the financing body determines the budget, payment installments and the rates at which expenses incurred in BGL are to be translated into the respective foreign currency. The amount of BGL expenses are translated at the specified rate and an expense report in foreign currency is produced. It is used to report on the progress of the project before the financing organization. These reports are prepared at a frequency determined by the contract for the project assignment.

Revenue is recognised on the basis of completed stage as reported by the CSD to the commissioning bodies.

Revenue is recognised as income for the period to match the related costs, on a systematic basis. Project contracts are denominated in foreign currency, while the related expenses are incurred in BGL. Expenses as revalued in foreign currency correspond to the revenues in the same foreign currency.

(g) Change of the accounting policy

There has been a change in the principle of revenue recognition as compared to the previous financial period. In 1997 revenue has been recognized in the year of the project completion, although it may not be the year when all expenses have been incurred.

In 1998 income is recognized on accrual basis at the year end for completed and continuing projects. The maximum amount of revenue that can be recognised is the amount of expenses incurred. The deferred revenue is depreciated on a project basis. The relevant amounts are recognized as income. The difference to the total amount of BGL expenses is also recognised. Since this amount must correspond to the currency amount from the expense report, which is booked at another rate, an exchange rate difference occurs.

The effect of the change of the accounting policy could not be calculated.

(h) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash in hand and balances with banks.

(i) Taxation

CSD is a non-profit organization Therefore it has no tax liabilities.

Deferred tax has not been incurred in the financial statements due to the fact that this tax could not be levied on grants.

1.Revenue from grants, contributions and donations

For the year ended 31 December 1998
IDLI 343,058
ETF 64,372
CE 90,503
CIPE 98 57,670
CED 57,008
IBF Pr. Str. 65,190
PHARE 50,452
IBF for Imp. Studies 67,204
NEI 48,754
GMF 40,794
BTC Institutional Development 34,882
Ministry of Foreign Affairs - European Integr. 33,857
Other projects 269,174

The item Other projects includes revenue from 35 projects, and the revenue of each these projects does not exceed BGL 25 million.

2. Expenses on grants, contributions and projects

For the year ended 31 December 1998
Salaries and benefits 379,221
Hired services 295,381
Depreciation 66,651
Supplies and consumable 44,538
Other expenses 213,869
Decrease in deferred expenses 153,603

3. Foreign exchange gains

  For the year ended 31 December 1998

Exchange rate gains from operations 224,604
Exchange rate losses from operations (138,405)

Differences on exchange rates have arisen in the cases when debtors, cash and creditors denominated in foreign currencies have been revalued on a monthly basis.

Differences on exchange rates have arisen when income and expenses have been matched. Since deferred revenue is received in foreign currencies and expenses are incurred in BGL when they are matched at every reporting period foreign exchange rate differences occur.

4. Extraordinary income and expenses

For the year ended 31 December 1998
Extraordinary income 34,768
Extraordinary expenses (1,598)
Write down of investments (229)

5. Receivables

For the year ended 31 December 1998
Completed Projects 32,822
Receivables from ARC Fund 134,008
Other receivables 70,695


Since revenue and expenses on projects are matched on a yearly basis to conform with the accruals principle, receivables consisting of expenses incurred on fully completed projects arise.

6. Cash and cash equivalents

For the year ended 31 December 1998
At bank 1,107,152
In local currency 4,709
In foreign currency 1,102,443
In hand 46,259
In local currency 15,563
In foreign currency 30,696

7. Deferred expenses

For the year ended31 December 1998
CIPE’98 39,837
SOCO 9,651
ETF 7,240
Interrights 103
COLPI 2,747
CE edition 798
OSF 157
Phare democracy (Santander) 22,549

Since income and expenses on projects are matched on a yearly basis to conform with the accruals principle, deferred expenses consisting of expenses incurred on projects that have not been completed yet, arise.

8. Property plant and equipment

  Plant and equipment Vehicles Fixtures and fittings Total
Cost or valuation
  BGL’000 BGL’000 BGL’000 BGL’000
At 1 January 1998 345,696 122,477 193,932 662,105
Additions 41,798 62,407 664 104,869
Disposals (230,068) - (93,680) (323,748)
Inflationary adj. (+) 3,377 1,225 1,939 6,541
Inflationary adj. (- ) (2,301) (1,625) (937) (4,863)
At 31 December 1998 158,502 184,484 101,918 444,904
Accumulated depreciation
At 1 January 1998 272,958 122,191 156,017 551,166
Charge for the year 34,677 6,975 22,625 64,277
Disposals (230,068) - (93,680) (323,748)
Inflationary adj. (+) 3,010 1,222 1,771 6,003
Inflationary adj. (- ) (2,247) (174) (921) (3,342)
At 31 December 1998 78,330 130,214 85,812 294,356
Net book value as at At 31 December 1998 80,172 54,270 16,106 150,548
Net book value as at 31 December 1997 72,738 286 37,915 110,939

9. Intangible fixed assets

  Patents, license,trade marks Software Total
  BGL’000 BGL’000 BGL’000
Cost or valuation
At 1 January 1998 408 9,543 9,951
Additions   -  
Disposals   -  
Inflationary adj. (+) 4 96 100
At 31 December 1998 412 9,639 10,051
Accumulated depreciation
At 1 January 1998 177 6,746 6,923
Charge for the year 81 1,782 1,863
Disposals - - -
Inflationary adj. (+) 3 86 89
At 31 December 1998 261 8,614 8,875
Net book value as at At 31 December 1998 151 1,025 1,176
Net book value as at 31 December 1997 231 2,797 3,028

10. Investments

For the year ended 31 December1998
Agency “Vitosha”EOOD 5,006
Radio “Vitosha” 229
Provisions (229)

Investments have not been inflated. CSD is a not-profit organization but the subsidiaries perform economic activity. Thus if their separate financial statements are included in the parent’s separate financial statements, these will not give a true and fair presentation of the activity of the CSD

11. Payables

For the year ended 31 December 1998
Payables to the budget 6,225
Salaries, benefits and social security payable 10,843
Payables to suppliers 8,873
Other payables 32,999

The payables to the budget consist of income tax levied on salaries for the month of December 1998.

12. Deferred revenue

For the year ended 31 December 1998
For project activities 167,188
For fixed assets 54,759

13.Funds balance

Accumulated fund
Balance at 1 January 1998 1,146,323
Revaluation for the period 11,463
Excess of revenue over expenditure for the year 192,075
Balance at 31 December 1998 1,349,861

Contingent liabilities

There are no contingent liabilities to report on.

Related parties

Related party Nature of the related party relationship Type of transaction Transaction during the year Outstanding balance 31 December 1998
Agency Vitosha 100% of the capital owned by CSD Financing BGL 18,739,493 BGL 19,060,945
    Financing   USD 2,007
Radio Vitosha Significant influence Financing   USD 3,522
    Financing   BGL 564,431
        GBP 399
Center for the Study of Democracy CSD and ARC Fund are both represented by the President of the Governing Board Financing USD 80,000 USD 80,000
Agency Vitosha 100% of the capital owned by CSD Financing   BGL 273,920

Post balance sheet events

There have been no material changes or transactions subsequent to the balance sheet date that require adjustment or disclosure in the financial statements prepared for the period ended 31 December 1998.

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