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European Program
In 2005 the issue of the new security threats in the context of Bulgaria’s pending EU accession and accomplished NATO membership was the focus of activity of CSD’s European Program. A main task on its agenda was to provide a public-private
platform for the discussion of shared SEE approaches to combating corruption, organized crime and contraband.

2005 Highlights

• NATO transformation was one of the areas of particular interest for the European program in 2005. By general recognition, there remains a significant gap between the actual and the potential capabilities of the Alliance to
promote the collective security interests of its Member States and those of the wider international community. The annual security conferences of CSD contribute to the broader debate on NATO’s Transformation thus helping
to bridge this gap through the outlining of bold new policies, overcoming legacy relationships and trans-Atlantic divides.
• The forging of a common European agenda against organized crime is one of EU’s current preoccupations and accession and neighboring countries have a significant role to play. CSD’s has been seeking to advocate a broader approach to organized crime in the process of Bulgaria’s joining the EU, including through partnerships between law enforcement and the private sector.
• Crime prevention is also an area where CSD has been promoting common approaches by government institutions and civil society. To this end, CSD has led the way in Bulgaria in analyzing the trends in conventional crime and advocating the establishment of the National Crime Prevention Commission as a public-private partnership platform.
• For several years now, CSD is promoting the best international standards in the export control of small arms and light weapons. In 2005, this work was complemented by research into the spread of small arms in Bulgaria, efforts to transfer experience to neighboring countries and analysis of the role of private security companies.

I. NATO Transformation
For the past few years the European Program has focused its attention on the new security agenda through a variety of tools such as research reports, monitoring activities and high-profile security conferences and events. The Center makes special efforts to highlight the new risks related to trans-border organized crime, to advocate the new regional and EU security policy with a strong accent on anti-crime efforts, and to publicize innovative responses to the new security threats. CSD has published several studies in this area and has, more importantly, created a regional platform for a debate involving both NATO and EU partners, and the Southeast European countries.
The Third Annual Security Conference of the Center for the Study of Democracy took place on November 19-20, 2005 in
Sofia. The forum gave more prominence to ideas, concepts and policies which dominate the agenda of NATO, the EU
and the wider international community in this field. The Black Sea and Southeast European regions have been chosen as
sources of only some security problems, which complement the wider spectrum of concerns underlying the new security theories and practices. The debate benefited from the participation of Bulgaria’s Prime Minister Sergey Stanishev, Ivailo Kalfin, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Rumen Petkov, Minister of Interior, SACEUR General James Jones, Gen. Nikola Kolev, Bulgarian Chief of Defense Staff, Maj. Gen. Alberto Notari, DCOS ACT, Dr. Andrzey Karkozska, Director SDI, MOD Poland, Anton Buteyko, First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, Petrit Karabina, Deputy Minister of Defense
of Albania.
The speakers underlined that the future of the Alliance depends on the depth and speed of the transformation. Although
many relevant decisions have been taken since 2002, much remains to be done in terms of national contributions, political will and capacity to overcome legacy thinking. Among the conclusions which may be drawn is that the time up to the next NATO Summit in 2006 should be wisely and actively used for the preparation of the relevant decisions in the field of transformation.
The Third Annual Security Conference was preceded by a number of expertlevel discussions with international participation. A seminar on security strategies for experts in the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Defense of Serbia

From left to right: Dr. Ognian Shentov, CSD Chairman,
Sergey Stanishev, Prime Minister of Bulgaria,
Gen. James Jones, SACEUR, Amb. Boyko Noev, CSD European Program Director,
Prof. Sergey Karaganov, Chairman of the Council for Foreign and Defense Policy, Russia and
Gen. Nikola Kolev, Chief of General Staff of the Bulgarian Army

and Montenegro, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania and Hungary took place on October 13-14, 2005. The discussion focused on security perceptions which affect the political and security thinking in SEE after the major changes in the security environment and the emergence of new security threats. The seminar was organized by the CSD, in partnership with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Serbia and Montenegro and the Embassy of
Norway in Sofia, and was part of the agenda of the Southeast Europe Steering Cooperation Group (SEEGROUP) which meets on a regular basis at NATO Headquarters in Brussels. The event benefited from the contributions of NATO representatives, SEE diplomats and experts from Bulgarian NGOs specializing in security issues.

II. European Agenda against Organized Crime
CSD’s European program has also turned the spotlight on the overlap of the domestic and international aspects of security and has tried to engage EU member states in a debate over the issue. On March 2, 2005, the Center for the Study of Democracy, jointly with the British Embassy and the Ministry of Interior of Bulgaria, held a discussion on Combating Organized Crime in the
21st Century. It featured the British experience in coordinating efforts to combat organized crime presenting as a relevant example the strategy of the newly established Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA).
The discussion benefited from the participation of Ms. Caroline Flint, Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Drugs Co-ordination, Organised Crime and European Issues at the UK Home Office, Mr. William Hughes, Director General of SOCA, Mr. Boyko Kotzev, Deputy Minister of Interior and Gen. Boyko Borissov, Secretary General of the Ministry of Interior.

From left: Ms. Caroline Flint, Prof. Georgi Petkanov, Minister of Interior,
Mr. Boyko Kotzev, Deputy Minister of Interior and
Mr. William Hughes, Director General of SOCA

I am keen for us to learn from the advanced thinking of the Centre for the Study of Democracy, with whom our Embassy has a number of projectsin the JHA field. The Centre has already recognised that, in some key respects, organised criminals act like any other business. This approach is shown in many of your projects, such as the Informal Economy Index, which identifies the most vulnerable areas of the economy; and the Corruption Monitoring System, which tracks the dynamics of corrupt behaviour.

Caroline Flint
State, UK Foreign Office

Among the topics of CSD research closely related to organized crime is the drug market in Bulgaria. On March 18, 2005 the CSD hosted a discussion Drug Market and Organized Crime in Bulgaria: One Year Later to analyze the trends since the
launch of the Drug Market in Bulgaria report at the end of 2003. The main newfindings in the area were presented by CSD Senior Analyst Tihomir Bezlov and Gen. Boyko Borissov, General Secretary of the Ministry of Interior. The discussion benefited from the participation of representatives of government agencies, law-enforcement bodies, nongovernmental organizations, foreign missions and the media.

III. Crime Prevention Partnerships
In 2005, the Center continued to encourage public-private partnership in tackling crime. In June 2005, CSD hosted the launch of the National Crime Prevention Commission established jointly with the Ministry of Interior. The Commission, which brings together public institutions and non-governmental organizations, will meet the need of wider community participation in tackling crime. Its task will be to identify crime trends andfind effective remedies to the proliferation of crime in everyday life.
The Commission will give priority to improving coordination among all stakeholders, developing new prevention initiatives and awarenessraising and advocacy campaigns aiming to alleviate the negative impact of crime on community life.
The first meeting of the National Crime Prevention Commission took place on

From left: Mr. Tihomir Bezlov, CSD Senior Analyst,
Gen. Boyko Borissov, Secretary General of the Ministry of Interior and
Mr. Boyko Todorov, CSD Program Director

13 December, 2005. The meeting, chaired by the Minister of Interior Rumen Petkov, discussed a possible partnership between state institutions and the private business in crime prevention activities and elaborated a plan of activities for the year of 2006. The experience of the EU member states in crime prevention was presented as well.
CSD presented a draft plan of activities for the next year built around four major activities:
• Analysis of the trends in the petty crime;
• Discussion on the consequences of crime for the business;
• Discussion on the problems related to the marginalized social groups;
• Prevention of organized crime.
In 2005, the Center also looked into the larger crime situation in Bulgaria. The report Crime Trends in Bulgaria: Police Statistics and Victimization Surveys was publicly presented in January 2005. CSD uses a nationally representative crime victimization survey polling people’s experiences with crime as an alternative analytical tool to make anindependent assessment of the crime
situation in Bulgaria for the period 2001–2004.
Unlike official crime statistics collected by the ministries of interior and justice, the regular crime victimization surveys help the police and government authorities, as well as the public to understand:
• whether the official police crime data reflect the real crime rate and crime trends;
• the volume of the unreported crime;
• the reasons victims do not report crimes to the police;

From left: Dr. Ognian Shentov, CSD Chairman,
Mr. Boyko Kotzev, Deputy Minister of Interior,
Mr. Roumen Petkov, Minister of Interior and Mr. Jeremy Hill, UK Ambassador

• whether the police avoids registering reported crimes;
• the profile of the social groups that are most at risk of falling victims to crime.

IV. Small Arms Export Control
The Center for the Study of Democracy in cooperation with Saferworld, UK is carrying out an assessment of the existing controls on small arms and light weapons in Bulgaria. This assessment is providing an in-depth analysis of the outstanding challenges posed by the Bulgarian arms control system and will outline ways to overcome such problems. The report Taming the Arsenal: Small Arms and Light Weapons in Bulgaria, presented on March 30, 2005, summarizes thefindings of a research conducted on questions relating to small arms and light weapons in Bulgaria from July to November 2004 by the CSD, and
London-based Saferworld.

The Center puts an emphasis on sharing the Bulgarian experience with relevant actors from the countries in the region. The South Eastern Europe regional seminar Towards NATO and EU Accession: Effective Export Control Legislation – Lessons Learned took place on June 21-22, 2005. The seminar was jointly organized by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria, the Center for the Study of Democracy and the South Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC). It aimed at contributing to the process of bringing the export control legislation in line with the EU and NATO requirements and strengthening the mechanisms for its implementation. Experts from Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Romania and Moldova participated in the seminar.

Participants in the seminar on export controls

CSD Research Fellow, Philip Gounev, carried out research on the role of private security companies in Bulgaria. in the seminar on export controls

CSD Research Fellow Philip Gounev presenting the report

The findings were included in the report Small Arms and Light Weapons and Private Security Companies in South Eastern Europe: A Cause or Effect of Insecurity?, published by the South Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC). On 14 September, 2005 the Center for the Study of Democracy, jointly with the Saferworld
presented the report findings at a public discussion on the role of private security companies.


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