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Transportation, Smuggling, and Organized Crime
 


CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BORDER CONTROL DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD

2.1. TRADE FLOW TRENDS
2.2. MIRROR STATISTICS
2.3. BORDER CONTROL

2.3.1. THE BORDER CONTROL SYSTEM
2.3.2. PROBLEMS IN THE BORDER AND CUSTOMS CONTROL SYSTEMS

3. TRANSPORT COMPANIES AND SMUGGLING

3.1. RAILWAY TRANSPORTATION
3.2. RIVER TRANSPORTATION
3.3. SEA TRANSPORTATION
3.4. AIR TRANSPORTATION
3.5. ROAD TRANSPORTATION.
3.6. PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION
3.7. FORWARDING COMPANIES AND CUSTOMS AGENTS

4. TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE

4.1. ROAD AND RAILWAY BORDER CROSSING POINTS
4.2. SEA PORTS AND AIRPORTS

5. ORGANIZED CRIME AND TURKISH AND CHINESE GOODS SMUGGLING

5.1. THE TURKISH ROUTE

5.1.1. THE GUIDE-WOMEN
5.1.2. WAREHOUSE MARKETS AND THE SECURITY COMPANIES
5.1.3. POLITICAL CORRUPTION AND SMUGGLING
5.1.4. THE BIG INTERMEDIARIES
5.1.5. TRANSPORT COMPANIES AND SMUGGLING
5.1.6. THE SHRINKING OF ILLEGAL TURKISH IMPORT

5.2. CHINESE GOODS

5.2.1. PARTICIPANTS IN CROSS-BORDER SMUGGLING
5.2.2. THE BIG INTERMEDIARIES
5.2.3. TRANSFORMATION OF THE ORGANIZED CRIME STRUCTURES

6. CIGARETTES AND OIL PRODUCTS SMUGGLING

6.1. CIGARETTES SMUGGLING AT THE DUTY-FREE SHOPS

6.1.1. ILLEGAL EXPORT CHANNELS
6.1.2. ILLEGAL IMPORT CHANNELS: THE DUTY-FREE SHOPS

6.2. OIL PRODUCTS SMUGGLING

7. RECOMMENDATIONS

APPENDIX: RISK PROFILES OF BORDER CROSSING POINTS

1. KAPITAN ANDREEVO
2. PORT OF VARNA
3. KULATA

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