|Download text (PDF, 600 kb) |
Traditionally, migration processes are examined in the context of the labor market, humanitarian crises or social integration. The present study reveals a new dimension of migration which is considered one of the new security risks.
The first chapter of the paper defines the various forms of migration with a focus on the consequences of illegal immigration.
The second part discusses immigration as a threat to the public order and societal security in the EU member states and looks into the main stages of development of an EU immigration policy. After a review of the most important political and legal documents of the EU since the 80s, the study concludes that despite the active work of both the member states and the European Commission, currently a common European policy in the field of immigration does not exist.
Further, the study examines the new trends in migration to the EU and the challenges to the establishment of a European “area of security, freedom and justice”, such as the anti-terrorism measures and the need for “replacement migration” due to the demographic changes.
The third chapter is dedicated to Bulgaria as a country of origin and transit for immigrants to the EU. The main conclusion is that Bulgarian citizens represent a small percentage of the total number of immigrants in the EU and do not put its integrity and social security at risk. Particular attention is paid to the achievements of Bulgaria in harmonizing its immigration legislation with the “acquis communautaire” as well as to the need of further institutional and legislative improvements.
The study also touches upon the following issues:
• Who are the immigrants in the European Union and do they pose a risk to the internal order and safety of the European citizens?
• Is the post-enlargement “immigrant wave” realistic?
• What is EU’s reaction to the immigration from third countries?
• What is the Bulgarian immigration policy with regard to the future external border of the EU?
• What are the “pushing” factors for the Bulgarian immigrants to the EU?
• How the EU countries treat Bulgarian immigrants?